The 24th edition of the American Business in China White Paper explores the cross-cutting, industry-specific, national, and regional issues faced by AmCham China’s member companies in 2021 and early 2022. Each chapter offers practical recommendations for addressing challenges facing the American business community that will, if implemented, benefit both foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) and the Chinese economy. We hope that this year’s White Paper will serve as a constructive tool for both the China and US governments and offer a comprehensive set of recommendations for both countries as they work towards greater mutual understanding and successful resolution of outstanding company concerns.

中国美国商会的第24版《美国企业在中国白皮书》探讨了2021 年和2022 年初商会会员企业所面临的跨领域的、行业的、全国性和地区性问题。每一章都提出了应对这些挑战的实用建议,如果得以实施,将使外商投资公司和整个中国经济受益。商会希望今年的《白皮书》能够成为中美两国政府合作的一个建设性工具,并将继续通过《白皮书》为两国政府提供全面的建议,期待借此增进双方的相互理解,帮助会员企业成功解决存在的问题。

All AmCham China card-holding members should have received an email with a link to download the White Paper 2022.

All non-members are welcome to buy this publication by clicking on this purchase link.

At a Glance

US-China economic relations remain deeply intertwined. China is among the largest and fastest growing markets in the world and constitutes an important market for US products and services. China’s market also has a robust R&D and innovation ecosystem, and many leading American companies generate a substantial portion of their revenue from the China market. China is a key source and supplier of a vast number of products and components, often at lower cost and in larger scale than available elsewhere, which benefits US consumers.

In 2021, the bilateral relationship continued to deteriorate despite a resumption of regular working level dialogues and some progress on climate cooperation. The COVID-19 pandemic aggravated this deterioration, deepening mistrust between the two countries and reenforcing the focus on supply chain security, reshoring, and domestic manufacturing. Meanwhile, many longstanding economic and commercial issues that challenge the foreign business community remain unaddressed, including China’s longstanding support for its SOEs, subsidies and other preferences for domestically-invested enterprises under various industrial policies, preferences for domestic technologies and products over foreign technologies and products in procurement processes, censorship and other restrictions barring entry for foreign cultural products, strict cybersecurity and data localization requirements, and cyber intrusions.

Therefore, it is unsurprising that a majority of our members reported “US-China bilateral tensions” has become the top challenge to doing business in China. Last year’s White Paper highlighted the business uncertainties introduced by the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Events in 2021 further compounded those trends, with ongoing COVID-19 prevention measures and an increase in regulatory uncertainty across sectors introducing new market challenges. AmCham China acknowledges that the US-China relationship is undergoing a fundamental recalibration and acknowledges the need of all countries consider their national security. We remain opposed to any effort at outright decoupling of the US-China relationship. The costs of decoupling from losing trade and foreign investment benefits for both countries would be significant and are unlikely to generate clear winners. In order to be globally competitive, American producers and service providers must be able to compete in the China market on a level playing field. Nevertheless, extensive market access barriers, protectionism, an opaque regulatory system, and discriminatory enforcement continue to hinder the operations of US business in China today.

概 述



尽管中美双方在2021 年恢复了部分工作层面的对话机制并在气候合作方面取得了一些进展,但双边关系持续紧张。新冠肺炎疫情也加剧了这一态势,加深了两国之间的不信任,并再次引起了对供应链安全、制造业回流和国内制造的关注。同时,外国在华商界长期面临的经济和商业挑战仍未得到解决,比如中国对国有企业的长期支持,产业政策给予国内企业的补贴和优惠,在采购流程中更偏好国内产品和技术,对外国文化产品的进口审查和相关限制,对网络安全和数据本地化的严格要求,以及网络攻击问题等。

因此,大多数中国美国商会(以下简称商会)会员业表示“中美双边关系紧张”已经成为在华运营的首要挑战。2020 年《美国企业在中国白皮书》(以下简称《白皮书》)中强调了新冠肺炎疫情为商业运营带来的不确定性。2021 年这一趋势进一步加剧,现行的新冠肺炎疫情防控措施以及各行业监管的不确定性增加了新的市场挑战。商会理解中美关系正处于重塑阶段,并承认各国都有各自界定并保护其国家安全的权利。商会坚决反对中美关系彻底脱钩。脱钩会让两国在贸易和外国投资方面蒙受巨大损失,两方谁都不可能在这场博弈中成为赢家。为了增强全球竞争力,美国生产商和服务提供商必须保证能够在中国市场上进行公平竞争。然而,广泛存在的市场准入壁垒、保护主义、不透明的监管体系以及差别性执法,至今仍然阻碍着美国企业的在华运营。