Policy Priorities

Our policy priorities – Building Trust through Transparency, Promoting Development through Open Investment and Stimulating Innovation through Global Cooperation – are the culmination of discussions among AmCham China members and supported by data drawn from the annual Business Climate Survey of member companies and the American Business in China White Paper of policy issues. 我们的政策重点定为:提高透明度以增进互信、开放投资以促进发展和以全球合作刺激创新。该政策重点反映出中国美国商会遍及美国、欧洲、澳大利亚及亚洲其他地区的900家会员企业中3000名会员(其中一半为中国人)的共同呼声。

 

The American Chamber of Commerce in China

2017 Policy Priorities

 

Introduction

Even as China’s economy slows, the influence of the world’s second largest economy on global trade and financial flows is undeniable. Chinese companies have invested increasing amounts overseas, and concern over asset bubbles, rising debt and capital flows are now topics for discussion around the world. With such importance, the question has become whether China is taking adequate steps to weather the increasing headwinds that its economy is facing?

AmCham China members are clearly disappointed in the pace and nature of China’s economic reform. It has been three years since the so-called “Third Plenum” offered so much promise in helping China transition into a modern economy. Since then, much-heralded initiatives such as the Shanghai Free-Trade Zone have fizzled, and negotiations on a US-China Bilateral Investment Treaty continue to drag on.

Meanwhile, political transitions in the US and China are increasingly uncertainty at a time when companies most value stability. In particular, questions are being raised in the US about China’s willingness to engage fairly in economic and commercial issues, especially as Chinese companies expand overseas into areas that are restricted to foreign companies in China.

AmCham China has long been a strong supporter of China’s engagement in the global economic system, most notably through its intense lobbying efforts with the US Congress to support China’s admission to the World Trade Organization. China has benefitted greatly from this global economic integration, as well as the contributions of foreign companies. It has been estimated that the combined investments of US companies in China have now reached $228 billion, and for much of the past decade the majority of China’s exports were produced by foreign-invested enterprises. Despite this transfer of knowledge, skills, intellectual property and money, there is an increasing perception of resentment toward foreign business that belies their contribution to China’s development.

Set against this background, our policy priorities – Building Trust through Transparency, Promoting Development through Open Investment and Stimulating Innovation through Global Cooperation –  are the culmination of discussions among AmCham China members and supported by data drawn from the annual Business Climate Survey of member companies and the American Business in China White Paper of policy issues. These priorities reflect, therefore, the opinions of the chamber’s 3,000 members (half of whom are Chinese nationals) from 900 member companies headquartered not just in the US, but also Europe, Australia and other parts of Asia.

While it is easy to focus on the negative, these priorities seek to emphasize the opportunities for all parties in China’s economy of continued reform. The chamber also recognizes the improvements already made not just in economic development in general, but also in specific areas such as protection of intellectual property rights. Nevertheless, it remains the case that many policies continue to hamstring the economy, especially in areas that, with greater investment, could drive tomorrow’s economic growth.

Building Trust through Transparency

Greater transparency would not only help in the government’s fight against corruption, but also boost confidence in private companies from both China and overseas that their investments will be fairly protected under the law. The stability and predictability provided by an unambiguous regulatory environment will be important for China’s continued growth, and we hope the authorities can close the effectiveness gap between legislation and its enforcement through an inclusive process for participation in the formulation and implementation of laws and regulations.

  • Inconsistent/unclear laws and enforcement are still the No. 1 challenge for AmCham China members. (2017 Business Climate Survey)
  • If realized, greater transparency, predictability and fairness of the regulatory environment was cited by more than half of members as a potentially very or extremely significant driver of new investment. (2017 Business Climate Survey)
  • China ranks 78 out of 190 in the Ease of Doing Business index for 2016, just ahead of San Marino. (The World Bank)
  • In terms of regulatory quality and rule of law in the Worldwide Governance Indicators, China deteriorated between 2010 and 2015. (The World Bank)
  • China ranks 80 out of 113 countries for regulatory enforcement in the 2016 Rule of Law Index, just ahead of Uzbekistan, compared with 71 out of 102 countries the previous year. (World Justice Project)

Promoting Development through Open Investment

The benefits of open, vibrant markets extend well beyond foreign-invested enterprises. We believe government policy should help all parties in Chinese society – including consumers, farmers, private companies – not the narrow interests of the few. This is especially important given the increasing scrutiny of the US-China commercial relationship and the questions being raised internationally about the access being granted to Chinese companies overseas compared to the access foreign-invested companies have in China.

  • The economic and technological impact of foreign-invested companies, and the ripple effects through their supply chains and the spending of employees, averaged 33% of China’s GDP from 2009 to 2013. (Developing China: The Remarkable Impact of Foreign Direct Investment.)

And yet:

  • China ranked 58 out of 59 countries in the Total FDI Restrictiveness Index in the last review in 2015, ahead only of the Philippines. (Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development)
  • A record low (56%) number of companies say China is among their top 3 investment destinations. (2017 Business Climate Survey)
  • More companies say the investment environment is deteriorating rather than improving (31% vs. 24%). (2017 Business Climate Survey)
  • More than half of members (55%) believe foreign companies are treated unfairly; 81% feel less welcome than before. (2017 Business Climate Survey)

Stimulating Innovation through Global Cooperation

To realize its innovation goals, China will need to strengthen its infrastructure and open its institutions to allow information to flow more freely. Creativity is the product of diverse ideas combined in an environment where standards are set with broad participation and intellectual property is protected from theft. We also need to recognize that the rapid pace of innovation is beyond the ability of any single government to manage, meaning that technology regulation requires public-private engagement across borders.

  • Innovation is a top 3 priority for half (50%) of our members, up from 44% last year. (2017 Business Climate Survey)
  • Lack of sufficient IP protection the No. 1 (45%) barrier to increasing innovation in China. (2017 Business Climate Survey) 
  • After strong improvements at the end of the last decade, the standard of intellectual property rights protection in China has stagnated. (The International Property Rights Index 2016)

中国美国商会

2017年政策重点

 

简介

尽管中国经济增长减缓,但其作为世界第二大经济体对全球贸易和金融流量的影响仍不容小觑。中国公司的对外投资额日益增长使得有关资产泡沫、债务增加及资本流动的讨论成为当今世界的热门话题。更为重要的问题是,中国是否采取了充分措施改变其经济所面临的不利处境?

中国美国商会会员对中国经济改革的进度和形式颇为失望。十八大“三中全会”针对中国向现代化经济转型做出了诸多承诺,至今已有三年的时间。然而随后的许多先行举措(包括建立上海自由贸易区)无疾而终,有关中美双方投资协定的谈判也止步不前。

同时,在会员企业亟需稳定之时,中美双边政治关系却愈加不确定。特别是,美国已开始怀疑中国是否愿意公平参与商贸领域的交流,因为中国公司在海外可从事外国公司在中国被限制经营的领域。

中国美国商会一向积极支持中国参与全球经济活动,这一点在商会努力游说美国国会支持中国加入世界贸易组织的行动中得以体现。中国从全球经济一体化和外国公司的支持中获益匪浅。据估计,美国公司在中国的投资总额目前已达到2280亿美元,同时,在过去十年间,中国的大部分出口产品均由外资企业生产。尽管外资公司向中国输送知识、技术、知识产权及资本,但是中国对外资企业的负面情绪却日益明显,完全不顾外资公司曾对中国经济发展所做的贡献。

在此背景下,我们根据中国美国商会的年度《商务环境调查报告》及《美国企业在中国白皮书》中有关政策的数据,在同中国美国商会会员进行讨论后将政策重点定为:提高透明度以增进互信开放投资以促进发展以全球合作刺激创新。该政策重点反映出中国美国商会遍及美国、欧洲、澳大利亚及亚洲其他地区的900家会员企业中3000名会员(其中一半为中国人)的共同呼声。

在阐述了诸多不利因素的同时,该政策重点着重强调了中国经济深化改革中的机遇。中国美国商会不仅认可经济发展领域已取得的整体进展,同时也着重强调了包括保护知识产权在内的个别领域所取得的进步。尽管如此,中国仍有诸多妨碍经济增长的政策,特别是在那些加大投资便可促进经济增长的领域。

提高透明度以增进互信

提高透明度不仅有助于政府对抗腐败,同时也可以鼓励中国及海外私营企业,让他们相信其投资将依法受到同等保护。明确的监管规则所带来的稳定及可预见性对中国经济的持续增长有着莫大的帮助;我们希望相关部门可以通过允许多方参与法律法规的制定及实施的方法消除立法和执法之间的空隙。

  • 中国美国商会会员面临的最大挑战依旧是法律规定和法律执行的不一致性/模糊性。(2017年《商务环境调查报告》)
  • 过半数的会员认为,实现监管环境的透明化、可预见性和公平性将在极大程度上吸引新投资。(2017年《商务环境调查报告》)
  • 2016年,中国的营商便利指数在190个国家中排名第78位,仅在圣马力诺之前。(世界银行)
  • 在全球治理指标中的监管质量和法治方面,中国在2010年至2015年间不断下滑。(世界银行)
  • 在2016年法治指数中的监管执法方面,中国在113个国家中排名第80位,仅在乌兹别克斯坦之前,而2015年其则在102个国家中排名第71位。(世界正义工程)

开放投资以促进发展

开放且活跃的市场不仅仅对外资企业有益。我们相信,政府政策应使中国社会中的每一方均受益,包括消费者、农民及私营公司,而非仅为少数人的利益而制定。考虑到如今中美商业关系日益谨慎,且全球社会对中国公司在海外和外资公司在华的准入领域的不对称性提出质疑,此等举措显得尤为重要。

  • 外资公司所带来的经济和科技影响,以及经由他们的供应链和雇员的消费所引发的涟漪效应在2009年至2013年间在中国GDP中平均占33%。(发展中的中国:外商直接投资带来的巨大影响)

但是:

  • 2015年,中国的外商直接投资总量限制指数在59个国家中排名第58位,仅领先于菲律宾。(经济合作与发展组织)
  • 仅有56%的公司将中国做为其首选的三大投资目的地之一,创历史新低。(2017年《商务环境调查报告》)
  • 多数公司认为(中国的)投资环境正在恶化而不是改善(31%对24%)(2017年《商务环境调查报告》)
  • 超半数的会员(55%)认为外国公司遭受了不公平对待,同时,81%的会员认为外国公司不如以往受欢迎。(2017年《商务环境调查报告》)

以全球合作刺激创新

为实现创新目标,中国必需加强其基础设施建设并开放其相关机构,以使信息得以更加自由地流通。创造力是多元观念相互交融的产物,在这样的环境中,标准的制定来自多方的参与、知识产权得到有力的保护。我们同时应认识到,创新能力的快速发展无法靠单一政府来实现,技术规范需要境内外国有和私营企业的通力合作。

  • 半数会员(50%)认为创新是三大要务之一,而在去年这一比例仅为44%。(2017年《商务环境调查报告》)
  • 阻止中国进行创新的第一大障碍就是缺乏针对知识产权的保护。(2017年《商务环境调查报告》) 
  • 在十年前的快速发展后,中国针对知识产权的保护便停滞不前。(2016年国际产权指数)

Previous Policy Priorities